1 | World Integrated Trade Solution (WITs), https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/KEN/Year/2019/TradeFlow/EXPIMP/Partner/CHN/Product/all-groups. Accessed: 10 January 2022.
2 | The SGR project (Phase One, Mombasa- Nairobi 488 kilometers) is Kenya’s largest infrastructure project since independence in 1963, worth USD 3.2 billion. The project started in December 2014 and began operation in June 2017. This explains the reduction in imports from 2018.
3 | The law does not mandate foreign investors to register with KenInvest (The Investment Promotion Act, 2004), so the data does not reflect all Chinese investments in the country.
4 | US, 2021 Investment Climate Statements: Kenya, https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-investment-climate-statements/kenya/ Accessed: 10 January 2022.
5 | China-Africa Research Initiative - Chinese Investments in Africa, http://www.sais-cari.org/chinese-investment-in-africa. Accessed: 21 March 2022.
6 | Phyllis Wakiaga, Chief Executive Officer, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Chinese firms boosting Kenya’s manufacturing sector via technology https://newsaf.cgtn.com/news/2021-09-14/Chinese-firms-boosting-Kenya-s-manufacturing-sector-via-technology--13x2mTtdSUg/index.html. Accessed: 19 March 2022.
7 | Okoth, Jackson “China is the Top Bilateral Lender to Kenya- Central Bank,” 19 September 2021 https://kenyanwallstreet.com/china-has-invested-heavily-in-kenyas-roads-rail/. Accessed: 19 March 2022.
8 | Miriri, Duncan, China’s foreign minister visits Kenya amid unease over rising debt, https://www.reuters.com/world/china/chinas-foreign-minister-visits-kenya-amid-unease-over-rising-debt-2022-01-05/ Accessed 21 March 2022.
9 | European Parliament, 2019. China's growing role as a security actor in Africa https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/642232/EPRS_BRI(2019)642232_EN.pdf. Accessed: 22 December 2021.
10 | Shuwen Zheng and Ying Xia. 2021. Private Security in Kenya and the Impact of Chinese Actors. Working Paper No. 2021/44. China Africa Research Initiative, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.sais-cari.org/publications.
11 | Ibid.
12 | Afrobarometer is a Pan-African, non-partisan survey research network that provides reliable data on Africans’ experiences and evaluations of democracy, governance, and quality of life. With sample sizes of 1,200 or 2,400 adult citizens, the survey yield margins of sampling error of +/-2 to 3 percentage points at a 95% confidence level.
13 | In the survey, the respondents were asked what they thought were the most important problems facing Kenya that the government should address: management of the economy, unemployment, corruption, health and education topped the list.
14 | Kitimo, Antony, “Chinese foreign minister to visit Kenya in Africa tour,” The East African 4 January 2022, https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/business/chinese-foreign-minister-africa-visit-3672274.
15 | The East African, China hits out at the US over Kenya military base claim, 8 November 2021, https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/east-africa/china-hits-out-at-the-us-over-kenya-military-base-claim-3611798. Accessed: 22 December 2021.
16 | Prizzon Annalisa and Tom Hart. 2016. Age of Choice: Kenya in the new development finance landscape, Overseas Development Institute, https://cdn.odi.org/media/documents/10986.pdf. Accessed: 8 January 2022
17 | Were, Anzetse, Debt Trap? Chinese Loans and Africa’s Development Options, South African Institute of International Affairs, Policy Insight, No. 6 https://media.africaportal.org/documents/sai_spi_66_ were_20190910.pdf. Accessed: 20 March 2022.
18 | It is not easy to determine whether Kenya already experienced pressure from the US (or from China) to reassess ties with the other side.
19 | Basu Pratyusha and Milena Janiec (2020). Kenya’s regional ambitions or China’s Belt-and-Road? News media representations of the Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, doi:10.1111/sjtg.12350
20 | Ibid.
21 | The reduction could be attributed to debates around increasing Chinese loans in Kenya, compounded by the quick spread of the Covid-19 after Covid-infected airline passengers from China were not quarantined.
22 | Mwaura, Samora 2013. “Who is the Bull in a China Shop?” The Daily Nation, 31 March 2013.
23 | Yusuf, Mohammed “China to Appoint Horn of Africa Special Envoy,” VOA, https://www.voanews.com/a/china-to-appoint-horn-of-africa-specialenvoy/6385449.html, accessed 10 January 2022.
24 | “Kenya GDP Annual Growth Rate,” Trading Economics, accessed September 5, 2021, https://tradingeconomics.com/kenya/gdp-growth-annual; Carmody, Pádraig; Ian Taylor, and Tim Zajontz, “China’s spatial fix and ‘debt diplomacy’ in Africa: constraining belt or road to economic transformation?” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines (2021), 8.