1 | This paper discusses the main findings and policy issues arising from the projects of the 2014 – 2019 research program on Immigration and the Transformation of Chinese Society funded under the Europe-China 2013 Call. The project research teams were based at the ES- SCA School of Management, Angers, France; Cologne University, Germany; Fudan University, China; Leiden University, the Netherlands; the University of Manchester, United Kingdom; and the University of Oxford, United Kingdom. For more information, see the project website: https://immigrantchina.net. In addition to the authors of this MERICS Monitor, the researchers whose work has fed into this report include Lai Pik CHAN (Cologne); Ka Kin CHEUK (Leiden); Lin Goedhals (ESSCA); Jasper Habicht (Cologne); Eva RICHTER (Cologne); Andrea STRELCOVA (ESSCA); Yong CAI (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); SHEN Jie (Fudan); SHEN Ke (Fudan); ZHU Qin (Fudan).
2 | “2018 nian quanguo bianjian jiguan jiancha churujing ren yuan shouci po 6 yirenci” (Nationwide border authorities for the first time complete over 600 million border checks in 2018), Ministry of Public Security, January 9, 2019,http://www.mps.gov.cn/n2254996/n2254999/c6342840/content.html. Accessed: June 14, 2019.
3 | Guobin Zhu and Rohan Price, “Chinese Immigration Law and Policy: A Case of ‘Change Your Direction or End Up Where You are Heading’?”, Columbia Journal of Asian Law 26(1), 2013, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2088683 Accessed: September 22, 2019.
4 | Albert Park, Cai Fang and Du Yang, “Can China Meet Its Employment Challenges?”, in Growing Pains: Tensions and Opportunity in China’s Transformation, edited by Jean Oi, Scott Rozelle and Xueguang Zhou, Stanford: Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center, 27-55, 2010.
5 | Wang Feng and Yong Cai, “China Isn’t Having Enough Babies”, Op-ed, The New York Times February 26, 2019.
6 | Anne-Mary Brady, Making the Foreign Serve China: Managing Foreigners in the People‘s Republic. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
7 | Parts of this paragraph have been paraphrased from Frank N. Pieke, “Immigrant China”, Mod- ern China 38 (1): 40-77, 2012.
8 | See Max J. Zenglein and Anna Holzmann, Evolving Made in China 2025 China’s Industrial, Policy in the Quest for Global Tech Leadership, Berlin: MERICS, 2019. | http://www.1000plan.org/en/. Accessed: September 22, 2019.
9 | Ingrid d’Hooghe, Annemarie Montulet, Marijn de Wolff and Frank N. Pieke, Assessing Europe-China Collaboration in Higher Education and Research, Leiden: Leiden Asia Centre, 2018; Cong Cao, Jeroen Baas, Caroline S. Wagner and Koen Jonkers, “Returning Scientists and the Emergence of China’s Science System”, 2019, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3395899. Accessed: September 4, 2019.
10 | See Jeffrey Mervis, “NIH probe of foreign ties has led to undisclosed firings – and refunds from institutions”, Science June 26, 2019, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/nih- probe-foreign-ties-has-led-undisclosed-firings-and-refunds-institutions. Accessed: September 3, 2019.
11 | See exhibit 2: up to 1895, Zou Yiren, Jiu Shanghai renkou bianqiande yanjiu (Research on population changes in old Shanghai), Appendix, Table 46, p. 145; post-1949 to 2000, He Yaping, Shanghai guojihua renkou yanjiu (Research on the internationalization of the pop- ulation of Shanghai), Tables 4-6, p. 88; post-2000, Shanghai Statistics Bureau; post-2013, estimates based on total foreign residents and the average share of those who stay over six months between 2010 and 2013 (about 50 %).
12 | This section draws on Tabitha Speelman, “The National Immigration Administration and the Future of China’s Immigration Reforms”, unpublished paper, 2019. An early version of this paper was presented at ‘Chinese Global Engagement Abroad: Changing Social, Economic, and Political Configurations’ (5-6 July 2019), Hong Kong University of Science and Technology & The French Centre for Research on Contemporary China.
13 | “Wang Yong: Zujian guojia yimin guanliju” [Wang Yong: establishing the State Immi- gration Administration], March 13, 2018, http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2018l-h/201803/13/c_137035628.htm. Accessed: June 14, 2019.
14 | Liu Guofu and Weng Li, “Quanqiu yimin qiyue de zhongyao linian, zhuyao tedian ji qi dui Zhongguo de qishi (Global compact for migration: key concepts, main features and implica- tions for China), Huaqiao Huaren lishi yanjiu 1: 1-8, 2019.
15 | Hong Liu and Els Van Dongen, “China’s Diaspora Policies as a New Mode of Transnational Governance”, Journal of Contemporary China 25: 102, 805-821, 2016.
16 | Liu, Guofu and Björn Ahl, “Recent Reform of the Chinese Employment-Stream Migration Law Regime”, China and WTO Review 4: 215-243, 2018.
17 | For example, Guiding Opinions of the Zhejiang Labor Arbitration Committee on Several Issues concerning Labor Disputes (2009); Summary of the Guangzhou City Intermediate People’s Court Seminar on Several Issues concerning the Trial of Labor Disputes (2008); Guiding Opinions of Shenzhen City Intermediate People’s Court on Several Issues concerning the Trial of Labor Disputes (for Trial Implementation) (2015).
18 | Jasper Habicht, “Exit Restrictions in the Context of Chinese Civil Litigation”, Asia Pacific Law Review, DOI: 10.1080/10192557.2019.1651486, 2019. Accessed: September 25, 2019.
19 | “Guojia yimin guanliju qidong yimin shiwu fuwu zhongxin choujian gongzuo” (SIA starts preparation work for immigration affairs service center), Xinhua, January 24, 2019, http:// www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2019-01/24/c_1124038981.htm. Accessed: September 12 2019.
20 | Wang Pan, 10 ge chengshi 106 ge waiguoren fuwuzhan (106 service stations for foreigners in 10 cities), Guoji xianqu daobao, May 25, 2012, http://ihl.cankaoxiaoxi. com/2012/0525/41775.shtml. Accessed: September 29, 2019.
21 | Li Minghuan, Guoji yimin zhengce yanjiu (International immigration policy research), Xiamen University Press, 2011, 322. | Gordon Mathews, “Africans in Guangzhou,” Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 44(4): 7–15, 2015.
22 | Heidi Østbø Haugen, “Residence Registration in China’s Immigration Control: Africans in Guangzhou”, in Destination China: Immigration to China in the Post-Reform Era, edited by Angela Lehmann and Pauline Leonard. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 45-64, 2018.
23 | Ding Feiping, Lou Pengying and Xu Li, “Zhongwai yimin guanli tizhi bijiao yanjiu (Comparative immigration management system research), Shanghai gong’an gaodeng zhuanke xuexiao xuebao 29(1): 5-11, 2019.
24 | Angela Lehmann, Transnational Lives in China: Expatriates in a Globalizing City, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
25 | This a play on the word fei that means both “African” and “three” in Chinese.
26 | Shanshan Lan, Mapping the New African Diaspora in China, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017.